Hi, everybody. With the Model 3, we have an interesting case of sandbagging by Tesla. What I call sandbagging is officially called a voluntary reduction by the EPA. The EPA allows car manufacturers to voluntarily lower the combined range (the EPA rated range). However, they don't try to hide this. In fact, they have published yearly documents that say "Combined range voluntarily lowered". Below is a screenshot from an actual EPA document which you can download

here. I found that file on

this page under the first column called Datafile1.

The screenshot is from the 2017 file. In the formula bar, you can see the original combined range before the voluntary reduction. What they are doing here is, they are adjusting the city and highway range retroactively to match the new voluntarily reduced range. In other words, the Model S P100D scored 324.3 mi EPA rated range (aka combined range where city range has 55% weight and the highway has 45%). When it scored 324.3 mi EPA, the city range was 305.9 mi but they are now reducing it at the rate the combined range was reduced. I don't think the EPA is trying to hide voluntary reductions. They are just trying to have consistent city, highway and combined range numbers where all of them are voluntarily reduced.

What is interesting is that the MPGe numbers still use the original city and highway range. If this file didn't exist, we would still be able to calculate what the original EPA rated range should be. For example, it is possible to calculate the 324.3 mi Model S P100D EPA combined range from dyno scores. What this file does is, it confirms that the non-sandbagged range numbers we can calculate from dyno scores are correct.

This 2017 file is very valuable because the EPA doesn't normally leave the original range numbers in the formula cells. Normally, this file should show 297.1 mi as static text and that's it. They were supposed to convert formula cells to static text. In Excel you do that by copying the cells and then right click to same cells > paste special > paste values. They forgot to do that in the 2017 file but they have done it in all previous years.

Anyway, the story behind the sandbagging is quite amazing. I hope more people will understand all these details. I quite like talking about these. What is happening here is actually quite simple. They are calculating EPA rated range and MPGe numbers from two dyno scores. To understand this better, I will post a calculation exercise for the Nissan Leaf. The Nissan Leaf's scores are not sandbagged. Therefore the calculations are straightforward.

After you do the Nissan Leaf calculations, if you apply the same calculation to the Model 3, the MPGe numbers you calculate will match the published numbers but the EPA rated range won't match because your calculation will show the pre voluntary reduction range.

**Summary:**
1. The Model 3 80 scored 334 miles EPA rated range but Tesla voluntarily lowered it to 310 miles. The reason is unknown.

2. When the Model 3 scored 334 miles EPA, it was using the 0.7 multiplier but the Model S/X use higher multipliers. The reason is unknown.